Stuttgart – With the 918 Spyder, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche was the first car manufacturer in the world to offer three plug-in hybrid models. Among the suppliers Porsche relies on for the innovative drive system is Bosch. The possibilities offered by the combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor will impressively be demonstrated by the Porsche hybrid vehicles at the 62nd International Automotive Press Briefing at the Boxberg test track, starting May 19.
"We promised to redefine driving pleasure, efficiency and performance with the 918 Spyder. We kept our word, and in so doing repositioned hybrid technology", says Wolfgang Hatz, Member of the Executive Board – Research and Development at Porsche AG. The Porsche 918 Spyder1) was the first globally road-legal car to complete the 20.6 kilometre lap of the North Loop of the Nürburgring in less than seven minutes. At exactly six minutes and 57 seconds, this super sports car with plug-in hybrid drive beat the existing record by 14 seconds. Porsche also integrated the knowledge gained from the develop-ment of the technology demonstrator into the electrification of the rest of its model range. The Panamera S E-Hybrid2) and Cayenne S E-Hybrid3) round off the product range and make Porsche the global market leader for hybrid cars in the premium segment.
"Porsche and Bosch have teamed up to bring electrification to electrifying sports cars together. Electricity gives added driving pleasure and efficiency", says Dr. Rolf Bulander, Chairman of the Business Sector Mobility Solutions at Bosch. For the three plug-in models made by Porsche, Bosch supplies the power electronics, the battery pack, the electric motors for the Cayenne and Panamera and the electric motor installed on the front axle of the 918 Spyder.
918 Spyder: a unique combination of performance and efficiency The project definition for the 918 Spyder's development team was to build the super sports car for the next decade with a highly efficient and high performance hybrid drive. The completely new development, which logically started from scratch on a blank piece of paper, allows a new concept without having to make any concessions. The whole car was designed around the hybrid drive. The 918 Spyder thus highlights the potential of hybrid drives, i.e. the simultaneous increase in efficiency and performance, without one coming at the expense of the other. Thanks to the SMG 180/120 electric motor developed by Bosch, the Porsche 918 Spyder has an additional 210 kW (286 hp) of driving power. The electric motor on the front axle of the 918 Spyder delivers a torque of 210 Nm right from the start, while the motor on the rear axle delivers 375 Nm. The result is a total system output of 652 kW (887 hp) with a maximum torque of up to 1,280 Nm, allowing the 918 Spyder to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in a mere 2.6 seconds. The super sports car's fuel consumption, on the other hand, is an amazing 3.1 litres per 100 km, making it more efficient in the NEDC test than most of today's small cars.
Panamera S E-Hybrid and Cayenne S E-Hybrid: fuel consumption of a small car The driving experience of a sports car combined with the consumption of a small car – the Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid and Panamera S E-Hybrid prove that these two are not contradictory to each other. The world's first plug-in hybrid amongst the premium SUVs with a system output of 306 kW (416 hp) achieves an NEDC fuel consumption of just 3.4 l/100 km. The plug-in hybrid model of the Porsche Gran Turismo, which also has a system output of 306 kW (416 hp) stands out thanks to its weight advantage, rear-wheel drive and low drag, giving it a fuel consumption of just 3.1 l/100 km.
In the plug-in hybrid models of the Porsche Cayenne and Panamera, Bosch's IMG-300 electric motor provides additional electrical propulsion. It gives a boost of up to 310 Nm of additional torque and provides 70 kW (95 hp) of additional power. The central interface between the electric motor and the battery is the INVCON 2.3 module made by Bosch. The power electronics are the control centre of the electric powertrain, because the system converts the direct current stored as energy in the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electric motor and vice versa. The traction battery stores the electricity in the powertrain. It is made up of prismatic cells with an energy capacity of 9.4 kilowatt hours in the Panamera S E-Hybrid and 10.8 kilowatt hours in the Cayenne S E-Hybrid that can be fully charged from a normal household power socket in less than four hours. Using a high current power supply, the charging time is almost halved to a good two hours.
Sales once again growing significantly faster than the market
Unit sales of ESP, diesel systems, and gasoline systems each increased 20 percent in 2014
Driver assistance business growing by one-third annually
The Bosch Group’s largest business sector, Mobility Solutions, continues to grow strongly. After adjusting for exchange-rate effects, the sector’s sales grew 7 percent in the first quarter of 2015. Nominal sales growth was as high as 13 percent1). “Technologically and internationally, our position is so good that we will again grow significantly faster than the market this year,” said Dr. Rolf Bulander, the business sector’s chairman, at the Bosch International Automotive Press Briefing in Boxberg, Germany (May 19 – 21, 2015). In 2014, the business volume of Mobility Solutions grew 8.9 percent, and thus more than twice as fast as global automotive production. Unit sales of important systems such as the ESP anti-skid system, gasoline direct injection systems, and diesel direct injection systems each grew by some 20 percent. In the future, Bosch will also increasingly offer solutions that govern the way cars and other means of transport interact. “We are rethinking personal mobility, and moving toward a multimodal concept encompassing bikes, trains, and buses,” Bulander said, explaining this new goal. “Bosch as a company is looking beyond the hood.”
Electromobility will make diesel and gasoline vehicles even more efficient On this path to the mobility of the future, Bosch is already achieving success, not just technologically but also commercially. The supplier of technology and services is pursuing three development paths, toward driving that is electric, automated, and connected. “Bosch is making good progress in all three,” Bulander said. In his view, the combustion engine will remain the basis for efficient mobility well into the next decade, even if the powertrain is electrified. Over the next five years, Bosch engine-related technology can reduce the consumption of diesel engines by 10 percent, and that of gasoline engines by nearly 20 percent.
In conjunction with electromobility, the combustion engine will become even more efficient. By 2025, 15 percent of all new vehicles will feature at least a hybrid powertrain. For this combination of electric motor and combustion engine, Bosch’s wide-ranging expertise means it is is excellently equipped. Of the 30 production orders the company has already carried out relating to powertrain electrification, ten alone are plug-in hybrid powertrains for premium vehicles. Over long distances, these vehicles run on diesel or gasoline, but can run in all-electric mode in city driving. “We have the experience it takes to turn an alternative powertrain into a success story,” Bulander said. “It’s what we did with diesel, and it’s what we want to achieve with the electric powertrain, too.”
Automated driving can cut accident figures by up to a third As the industry moves toward automated driving, the market for driver assistance systems is already expanding. In this market, Bosch is increasing its sales by one-third each year. Last year was the first time that the company sold more than 50 million environment sensors for driver assistance systems. And in 2015, unit sales of radar and video sensors will double, as they did in 2014. Bosch is the global market leader for radar sensors, which are found in systems such as adaptive cruise control. This year, a series of new systems will go into production at the company. These assistance systems help drivers in traffic jams, when taking evasive action, and when parking by remote control. By 2020, the aim is to produce a highway pilot for automated driving on freeways. In the view of the Bosch management board member Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, this is a decisive development step: “With this system, we will make the transition from partly to highly automated driving. Drivers will become passengers. That will mean greater comfort, and above all greater safety.” According to forecasts by Bosch accident researchers, increasing automation can significantly reduce accident figures even further – by up to one-third in Germany alone.
Some 2,000 engineers are working on further developing driver assistance systems at Bosch – a good 700 more than two years ago. Following the acquisition of ZF Lenksysteme (now known as Robert Bosch Automotive Steering), the Stuttgart company is in an even better position to take automated driving forward. To quote Bulander: “Bosch technology will enable the cars of the future not only to autonomously accelerate and brake, but also steer.”
Connected driving means a growing service business The internet will play a pivotal role in the development of the mobility of the future. Even now, it provides real-time traffic news, offering information on things such as accidents and construction zones, or about a traffic jam that starts just around the next bend. Such information is an essential condition for highly automated driving functions. Moreover, drivers can find and reserve vacant charge spots, and pay for the electricity, over the internet. “Connectivity is the key to the success of electrified and automated driving,” said the Bosch management board member Dr. Markus Heyn. In addition, connected driving is leading to new, beneficial services. For example, the transmission of ECU data can serve as the basis for preventive maintenance and tips for fuel saving. Services such as these support the fleet management of leasing and insurance companies. On the Bosch Drivelog mobility portal, drivers can also use such services direct. For this, they need a smartphone app and a connector for reading out the ECU data. All in all, it is expected that some 200,000 vehicles will be web-enabled and thus able to access these Bosch services. To quote Bulander: “Connected driving has left the pilot phase. For Bosch, it is becoming a flourishing service business.”
At the same time, Bosch is connecting diverse forms of transport. In Bulander’s words, these mobility solutions are also intended for multimodal transport: “We are offering new products that go beyond the car, such as services for urban mobility.” One example is the software solution that Bosch has developed for the Stuttgart Services project. Thanks to this software, one chip card is all that is needed for car-sharing, bike-sharing, train and bus travel, as well as for admission to amenities such as swimming pools or libraries. For Bulander, this is a “sneak peek at the transportation services of tomorrow.”
Moreover, Bosch already has prototype developments that connect cars and smart homes. In concrete terms, this means that the navigation system instructs the central heating to warm up the house in good time before the vehicle’s arrival. “Whether for houses or for cars, Bosch creates technology that is ‘Invented for life’,” Bulander said. “With the versatility of our expertise, our prospects for developing new mobility solutions are excellent.”
Test vehicles for automated driving are based on Tesla Model S
Premiere at 2015 International Automotive Press Briefing in Boxberg
Bosch is developing automated driving for all kinds of production vehicles
Retrofitting a car requires 50 new Bosch components, 1,300 meters of cable, and 1,400 hours of work
Highly automated test vehicles are already driving on public roads
Stuttgart – Spotting a test vehicle, equipped as they are with measurement devices, sensors, and instruments, is usually pretty easy. But that’s not the case for the new Model S Teslas that recently joined the Bosch fleet. Both these test vehicles are helping engineers further refine automated driving. But at first glance, it’s hard to tell them apart from production models. “Bosch is developing automated driving for production vehicles of all kinds,” says Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, member of the Bosch board of management. The new test vehicles are evidence of the progress Bosch has already made in integrating the necessary systems and components. Those attending the 62nd International Automotive Press Briefing can see this for themselves in Boxberg, Germany, from May 19 to 21, 2015.
Fit for highly automated driving after 1,400 hours of work To make the test vehicles ready for automated driving, they first had to be retrofitted. Fifty new Bosch components were installed in each car. They included a stereo video camera (SVC), which the car uses to recognize lanes, traffic signs, and clear spaces. The Bosch SVC is the smallest stereo camera system for automotive applications currently available in the market. Its compact design makes it easy to integrate into vehicles. In addition to the camera, 1,300 meters of cable were laid in each car and fixed in place with 400 cable ties. “After some 1,400 hours of work on each of them, the test vehicles are ready for highly automated driving,” Hoheisel says. Thanks to Bosch technology, the two Teslas can now autonomously drive from on-ramp to off-ramp without the driver needing to constantly monitor them.
This transfer of responsibility from the driver to the vehicle explains why so much time and effort is necessary for the retrofit. Highly automated vehicles must be capable of operating safely even if a component fails. The only way to achieve such operational reliability is by a design strategy that includes redundancy in safety-critical systems such as braking and steering. For example, both test vehicles feature both the iBooster electromechanical brake booster and the ESP braking control system. These Bosch components can brake the car independently of each other, without any need for driver intervention. “For Bosch, the principle here is safety first,” Hoheisel says. Back-up systems are also available for the two test vehicles’ power supply and vital ECUs.
Several thousand test kilometers driven without a hitch Since 2011, Bosch has had two teams – on two continents – working on automated driving. At the Abstatt location in Germany, Bosch engineers are working on system integration. Their colleagues at Palo Alto in California’s Silicon Valley are driving forward work on function development. The two teams receive support from roughly 2,000 driver-assistance engineers who work for Bosch around the world. To make it as easy as possible for the two teams to share their results, Bosch uses identical test vehicles. Hoheisel explains why Bosch opted for two all-electric Model S vehicles made by the U.S. automaker Tesla: “They combine two automotive industry trends: electrification and automation.” This presents a particular challenge, he says, but one that Bosch relishes.
Bosch started testing automated driving on public roads at the beginning of 2013. So far, it has been using test vehicles based on the BMW 325d Touring. Engineers have successfully driven them for several thousand kilometers on freeways – both the A81 near Stuttgart and the I280 in California. Before the first test drives, the German certification authority TÜV Süd reviewed the safety concept that Bosch had prepared specially for the purpose. And even though the technology on board the vehicles is designed to handle any situation in freeway traffic, the drivers at the wheel have been specially trained. Bosch’s test drivers not only know the safety precautions inside out, but have also completed a multi-day training course.